Application Zinc Oxide
Zinc oxide neutralizes acid and possesses mild bactericidal properties; it is therefore an ideal component in body cream and antiseptic healing cream, helping reduce soreness and redness.
Additionally, Zinc oxide is used in medical tapes and plasters, some toothpaste formulations and in dental cements.
No less importantly, Zinc oxide is incorporated into dietary supplements and vitamin tablets as a source of zinc, which comprises an essential micronutrient for the human body. Zinc is often touted as a remedy to the common cold and it is added to some over-the-counter cold medications.
Zinc oxide and its derivatives contribute to various hair and skin care cosmetic preparations, thanks to their optical and biochemical properties. In powders and creams, they protect the skin by absorbing the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays, and also promote healing in ointments used to treat sunburn.
Simple zinc salts impart astringent and skin conditioning properties to creams; more complex salts provide fungi static properties that enhance the effectiveness of deodorants, soaps, and antidandruff products.
Zinc is a mineral responsible for a variety of functions in the body. Zinc plays a role in the transmission of nervous system signals and is needed for proper protein and cell membrane structure. The mineral is also found in enzymes, is part of the process that releases hormones throughout the body and helps to regulate cell growth.
Zinc occurs naturally in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dairy products, vegetables and grains. The recommended daily allowance for zinc is 11 milligrams daily for adult males and 8 milligrams daily for adult females, reports the Office of Dietary Supplements.
Zinc oxide is added to many food products, including breakfast cereals, as a source of zinc- a necessary nutrient. Some prepackaged foods also include trace amounts of Zinc oxide even if it is not intended as a nutrient.
Fortifying foods with Zinc oxide helps to ensure that people receive an adequate amount of zinc in their diets. Zinc oxide is added to such foods as flour, breakfast cereal and infant formula.
While eating fortified foods helps to increase your daily intake of zinc, the foods might not provide all the zinc that your body needs. If you don’t eat a diet high in foods that naturally contain zinc, you might need to also take a zinc supplement.
Zinc oxide is a supplement that constitutes the main source of zinc in animal feed produced for consumption of poultry, cattle, swine, sheep and other livestock. It allows avoiding zinc deficiency, which leads to growth retardation; disorders in bone and joint, as well as feathers and coat; skin diseases; a low rate of fertility and more.
Zinc sulphate is also used In the animal feed industry. It serves as a source of zinc, which comprises an essential mineral nutrient.
Manganese Sulphate is used in animal feed industry, as a nutrient and a dietary supplement.
In the field of veterinary medicineto prevent perosis in poultry.
Manganese Oxide is used as a mineral supplement in animal feeds. Manganese Oxide is also used in the pharmaceutical industry in medicines and vitamins.
Ferrous Sulphate, together with other iron compounds, is used to fortify feeds and to treat iron-deficiency anemia.
Zinc oxide is widely used as a source of zinc, which is a trace element and an essential micronutrient required by plants.
Zinc Sulphate also serves as a source of zinc, which comprises an essential mineral nutrient.
In the production of fertilizers, it is used to improve crop quality and yields.
In agriculture, it is used to kill weeds and protect against pests.
Manganese Sulphate is used in agriculture, as a catalyst in the synthesis of chlorophyll to promote plant growth and augment harvests, and in the production of fertilizers promoting plant growth, particularly of citrus crops.
Manganese Oxide is used as a as a mineral supplement for fertilizers.
Ferrous Sulphate, together with other iron compounds, is used to fortify feeds and in the production of fertilizers and other agricultural uses.
The rubber industry in general, and tire manufacturers in particular, are the largest users of Zinc oxide, owing to its important chemical, physical and optical properties.
Since heat build-up is critical at the higher operating speeds of heavy-duty pneumatic tires (as compared with solid rubber tires) they carry high loadings of Zinc oxide for heat conductivity, as well as for reinforcement. The important role played byZinc oxide in the rubber industry is expressed in various processes:
In the curing process of natural rubber and most types of synthetic rubbers, the chemical reactivity of Zinc oxide is utilized to activate the organic accelerator. The unreacted share of the Zinc oxide remains available as a basic reserve to neutralize the sulphur bearing acidic decomposition products formed during vulcanization. Adequate levels of Zinc oxide distinctly contribute to chemical reinforcement, scorch control and resistance to heat aging and compression fatigue.
Zinc oxide serves as the accelerator with some types of elastomer. The cross-linking that it induces takes several forms. With some systems, Zinc oxide serves as an effective co-accelerator in the vulcanization process.
Zinc oxide is useful in the preservation of plantation latex, as it reacts with the enzyme responsible for decomposition. The oxide also inhibits the growth of fungi, such as mold and mildew.
In high voltage wire and cable insulation, Zinc oxide improves the resistance to corona effects owing to its dielectric strength. At elevated operating temperatures it contributes to maintaining the physical properties of the rubber compound by neutralizing the acidic decomposition product.
Zinc oxide retards the devulcanization of numerous types of rubber compounds operating at elevated temperatures.
Zinc oxide is particularly effective in the gelation of the foam, with sufficient stability, as part of the production process of latex foam rubber products.
Zinc oxide’s absorption of ultraviolet rays is exceptional among white pigments and extenders. It therefore serves as an effective stabilizer of white and tinted rubber compounds under prolonged exposure to the sun’s destructive rays.
Zinc oxide provides a high degree of whiteness and tinting strength for rubber products such as tyre sidewalls, sheeting and surgical gloves, owing to its high brightness, refractive index and optimum particle size.
Zinc oxide provides reinforcement in natural rubber, as well as in some synthetic elastomers, such as polysulfides and chloroprenes. The degree of reinforcement appears to depend upon a combination of the oxide’s particle size, with the finest size being the most effective; and the oxide’s reactivity with the rubber.
Under conditions characterized by rapid flexing or compression, Zinc oxide also provides heat conduction to enable more rapid heat dissipation, thereby providing lower operating temperatures. Additionally, it imparts heat stabilization by reacting with acidic decomposition products.
Rubber – metal bonding
In the bonding of rubber to brass, Zinc oxide reacts with copper oxide on the brass surface, forming a tightly adhering zinc-copper salt.
One of the unique properties of Zinc oxide is its ability to retain over many months of shelf -storage the tack of uncured rubber compounds for adhesive tapes. French process Zinc oxides impart heat-aging resistance superior to that of American-process Zinc oxides. The former type, being sulfur-free, has a higher pH and, thus, can neutralize more effectively the acidic decomposition products formed during aging. Moreover, the finer French-process Zinc oxides prove superior to coarser grades in heat-aging resistance
Zinc oxide imparts heat resistance and mechanical strength to acrylic composites. It also contributes to the formation and cure of epoxide resin. Adding Zinc oxide to epoxy resins cured with aliphatic polyamines imparts higher tensile strength and water resistance.
Furthermore, Zinc oxide imparts fire resistant properties to nylon fibers and moldings. It is also useful in the preparation of nylon polymers and in increasing their resistance. The formation of polyesters in the presence of Zinc oxide imparts higher viscosity and other improvements. It reacts with unsaturated polyesters to form higher viscosity and a thixotropic body.
It improves the dye ability of polyester fibers. Zinc oxide mixtures stabilize polyethylene against aging and ultraviolet radiation. Zinc oxideincreases the transparency of poly molding resin, and improves the color, tensile strength and vulcanization properties of polyolefins. It also affects the thermal stabilization of PVC, and imparts antistatic, fungi static and emulsion stability properties to vinyl polymers.
Applications in development for Zinc oxide stabilized polypropylene and high density polyethylene include safety helmets, stadium seating, insulation, pallets, bags, fiber and filament, agricultural and recreational equipment.
Zinc Dust provides hardness and low abrasion to the polyester resin molds that are used in the production of plastic parts.Zinc Dust is also used as a filler to increase impact strength, heat distortion temperature and thermal conductivity.
The glass and ceramics industry is also a major user of Zinc oxide in glazes and enamels.
Zinc oxide tends to increase the chemical durability of silicate glass. It is used in phosphate glasses, chemically resistant glass wares, glass metal seals and certain fiber glass compositions. Zinc oxide is also used as a stabilizer for cadmium sulphide and cadmium selenite during heat treatment, allowing the glass to retain its yellow or red color.
Additionally, Zinc oxide is extensively used in enamels. It regulates the expansion coefficient, improves glaze and texture and also enhances opacity and whiteness. Furthermore, it is widely used in porcelain enamel frits, and in glazes for pottery and sanitary ware.
Zinc oxide is a component in many formulations of durables and protective paints. One of its exceptional features is its opacity to ultraviolet light in the finished coatings, which improves weatherability. The oxide is not discolored by sulphur compounds in the atmosphere, as occurs in some lead pigments. It also protects the paint film from mildew, enhances resistance to abrasion and neutralizes the harmful acids formed by vehicle aging.
Zinc oxide, owing to its amphoteric nature, reacts with organic acids to form soaps that act as a dispersing agent.
Zinc metal powder (zinc dust) and zinc compounds have long been utilized for their anticorrosive properties in metal protective coatings, and presently comprise the basis of metal primers, such as zinc chromate primers.
Zinc dust paints are especially useful as primers for new or weathered galvanized iron. Such surfaces are difficult to protect because their reactivity with organic coatings leads to brittleness and lack of adhesion. Zinc dust paints, however, retain their flexibility and adherence on such surfaces for many years. Furthermore, they provide excellent protection to steel structures under normal atmospheric conditions, as well as to underwater steel surfaces (dams, the interior of fresh water tanks).
Zinc oxide comprises an essential ingredient in the “soft” type of ferromagnetic materials used for television, radio and telecommunication applications. Ferrites based on Zinc oxide (as well as on nickel oxide and magnetite) are used as elements in many types of electronic devices.
- The antenna cores in portable and car radios are ferrites, to provide highly selective tuning.
- Television picture tubes constitute a major market for ferrites, particularly for use in fly back transformers and deflection yokes.
- In the field of communications, ferrites are extensively used in the filter inductors of telephone circuits, to permit precise inductance adjustment for the purpose of separating channels.
- Magnetic tape for recorders is improved by the use of a magnetite precipitated in the presence of Zinc oxide.
Zinc oxide is not a fungicide per se; it is a fungi stat, i.e., it inhibits the growth of fungi. It is added to fungicides to enhance their effectiveness in specific applications. Zinc oxide derivatives also promote the control of fungi in a variety of applications.
Some of the unique electronic properties of Zinc oxide are distinctively utilized in the photocopying process: the photoconductivity and semiconductor properties of Zinc oxide are increased through special heat and/or doping treatments (the addition of foreign elements). Additionally, the optical properties of Zinc oxide are significantly modified to increase its absorption of visible light, in a process called sensitization, which is generally carried out through addition to certain dyes, which are absorbed on the surface of the Zinc oxide.
Commercial Zinc oxide for photocopying is generally produced from metallic zinc, rather than ore, to obtain a product of higher purity.
Zinc dithiophosphates, which are prepared by reacting Zinc oxide with organic phosphates, are used in substantial quantities as additives to lubricating oils for automotive engines, to reduce oxidation corrosion and wear.
Zinc oxide has been found to contribute special properties in many types of lubricants, such as extreme pressure lubricants, seizure resistant lubricants and greases; such greases are useful in the lubrication of food processing equipment.
Additionally, Zinc oxide also improves adhesion. Zinc dust contributes to anti-galling, anti-seizing and sealing of specialty lubricants and sealants, due to its ability to plate out on metal surfaces.
Zinc oxides, along with boric acid and ammonia, comprise components in solutions used to fireproof textiles; water insoluble Zn Borate is deposited on the fibers.
Batteries, fuel cells, photocells
Zinc oxide is used in zinc-carbon dry cells, zinc-silver oxide batteries, nickel oxide-cadmium batteries and even in secondary batteries. In fuel cells, Zinc oxide is used as electrode material, cathodic material and as a fuel element. In solar energy cells it can act as a photo catalyst.
- In the field of medicine, it functions as an astringent and emetic.
- In the manufacture of viscose rayon, it comprises an important component in the precipitating bath.
- In the zinc plating process, it serves as an electrolyte.
- In dyeing, it serves as a mordant.
- In the skins and leather industries, it is used as a preservative.
- It is an ingredient in the production of lithopone, which is used as a pigment and filler in the manufacture of paints, inks, leather, paper, linoleum, and face powders.
- It is also used in the chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries, as well as in the manufacture of glues, batteries and more.
Manganese Oxide is used as a raw material for fertilizers and as a mineral supplement in animal feeds. Manganese Oxide is also used in the pharmaceutical industry in medicines and vitamins. The mineral is also found in ferrites or magnetic ceramics, and other electronic components. The chemical industry uses manganese oxide to produce compounds like chelates and also for the production of other chemical compounds and derivatives. Manganese Oxide is also found in welding materials, smelting and glass coloration, use as dryer in daub and varnish, and as a catalyst in manufacturing pentanol.
- In agriculture, as a catalyst in the synthesis of chlorophyll to promote plant growth and augment harvests.
- In the production of fertilizers, to promote plant growth, particularly of citrus crops.
- In the animal feed industry, as a nutrient and a dietary supplement.
- In the field of veterinary medicine, to prevent perosis in poultry.
- In the paint industry, as a reducing agent.
- In the textile industry, in dyes.
- In mining – ore flotation.
- In the ceramics industry, in enamels.
- And also in medicine, in the production of fungicides, and more.